I’m writing you from this beautiful place, all around concrete in perfect rectangular shape, escalator that goes up and down, the floor is a metal gear, an infinite texture all around. Glass and steel are the dominance elements here.
Now here a light that we will save us.
Christmas is today a mix between tradition and marketing, in my hometown -Verona- decorate the Arena with a big white shooting star. All around the main square is fills with stands selling sweets and wood products alternate by sellers of useless tools like innovative mop or some kitchen tools (miracle blades!). During December in Verona we also have another tradition: the night of Saint Lucia, she comes during the night between the 12th and the 13th December bringing presents for children, for me this is more important than Santa Claus. When I was young I prepared a glass of milk and typical biscuits for her, and a bit of hay for her donkey. Still today my mother is so unite to this tradition that she sent me a video with all the presents from Saint Lucia fro this year. Christmas is for me the occasion to stay with my parents and kin all together. In Italy we usually prepare the Christmas lunch all together and we exchange the presents between us. This year my Christmas was very different, my older brother get married on the 27th December so we had not a lot of time to celebrate the Christmas, but anyway we had the same possibility to met all together for, I think, a more important event.
My relation with the Christmas? Very positive…
The importance of referencing is a nowadays problem that lots of students and especially journalists many times underestimate. As we know the referencing for the students is an academic problem but I think that for the journalism is more serious because they need to use data, events, name and other actions to tell us the truth about that politic or that businessman. First of all we need to know where is from the referencing and how we can use it to link our mindset to someone else.
So, what is referencing? Is a method to take and use an idea or a research from someone else and use it in your essay, the Oxford dictionary under the term reference says “A mention or citation of a source of information in a book or article” (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com, 2014). We need to use citation to express concept from others without confer their ideas to us but using it to create and formulate our essay and use it as a support to our thesis. Furthermore the referencing allow to the readers to rebuild our ideas and to find the sources and use those to extend their research and compare our way of thinking to the others authors.
The system that we use today and in particular in our university to reference everything, from books to website, and from interview to newspaper is the Harvard Referencing System that it was probably more invented by the zoologist Edward Laurens Mark (1847-1946). [is nothing more sinister than a way of citing references] usually it includes author and year and it is used in scientific articles. A confirm for the validity of that system came fromMark’s students in 1903 with a volume that underline the importance of referencing. (Chermin 1988 p1062).
The importance of referencing is underlined for all the sector of teaching, for example in medical science during the eighties it became fundamental the study of referencing such that the new students studied referencing with a tutor for all five years of university.
With the introduction of Internet during the nineties the problem of referencing became more complicate because at that time it wasn’t method to reference from a internet documents and the possibility for the students to reference on on-line resource was a big gap from the past. The Internet allow students to use resources from around the world and with the new protocol HTML to link direct into their essay, it was a revolution but here born a problem: how we can trust in that reference? The solution coming with online database include thousands of articles and scanned newspaper with the right information to create a reference.
We use referencing to argue everything in our life from a speech with our colleagues; “I heard it on the radio” or “I saw it on the newspaper” to something more formal as our essay. We need reference because our works don not came from nothing and our ideas comes ever from a reworked version of something that already exist. We have the ability to reformulate ideas and thinking in many different ways but we need to tell to other where are from these new ideas.
Probably we will never know where the phrase “Harvard system” come from but we will still use it system in our essay to referencing and link to other author. It will always remain the only source that we never reference.
- Chernin, E. (1988) ‘The “Harvard system”: a mystery dispelled’, British Medical Journal. October 22, 1988, pp. 1062-1063
- Clauss, M., Müller, D. and Codron, D. (2013). Source References and the Scientist’s Mind-Map: Harvard vs. Vancouver Style. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, [online] 44(3), pp.274-282. Available at: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/scp/summary/v044/44.3.clauss.html.
- Gordon Fletcher Anita Greenhill, (1995),”Academic referencing of Internet#based resources”, Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 47 Iss 11/12 pp. 245 – 252
- ‘Harvard reference librarians in ‘New Pathway’ program’ 1985, Library Journal, 110, 17, p. 23, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 November 2014.
- Hofstee, E. (2009). Constructing a good dissertation. Sandton: EPE.
- Lance, C. (2006). The Sources of Four Commonly Reported Cutoff Criteria: What Did They Really Say?. Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), pp.202-220.
- reference: definition of reference in Oxford dictionary (British & World English) (2014/ Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/reference?q=referencing#reference__13 (Accessed: 03/11/2014).